Shiraz

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Guided tours through three cities in Iran has been organized for all participants in IJSO 2012. The fixed program is sightseeing in Kish Island, Shiraz or Isfahan on December 10-12  . 

Shiraz (Persian: شیراز‎ Shīrāz) is the sixth most populous city in Iran[5] and is the capital of Fars Province, the city's 2009 population was 1,455,073. Shiraz is located in the southwest of Iran on the Roodkhaneye Khoshk (Dry river) seasonal river. Shiraz has a moderate climate and has been a regional trade center for more than one thousand years.

The earliest reference to the city, as Tiraziš, is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BC. In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters. Shiraz was the capital ofPersia during the Zand dynasty from 1750 until 1781, as well as briefly during the Saffarid period.

Shiraz is known as the city of poets, literature and flowers. It is also considered by many Iranians to be the city of gardens, due to the many gardens and fruit trees that can be seen in the city. Shiraz has had major Jewish and Christian communities. The crafts of Shiraz consist of inlaid mosaic work of triangular design; silver-ware; pile carpet-weaving and weaving of kilim, called gilim and jajim in the villages and among the tribes. Shiraz is home to Iran's first solar power plant. Recently the city's first wind turbine has been installed above Babakoohi mountain near the city.

Shiraz is most likely more than 4,000 years old. The name Shiraz is mentioned in cuneiform inscriptions from around 2000 BCE found in south western corner of the Shiraz city. 

       

The Qur'an Gate was a part of the great city wall built under the Buwayhid empire

 In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters. For this reason the city was named by classical geographers Dar al-‘Elm, the House of Knowledge. Among the important Iranian poets, mystics and philosophers born in Shiraz were the poets Sa'di and Hafiz, the mystic Roozbehan, and the philosopher Mulla Sadra. Thus Shiraz has been nicknamed "The Athens of Iran".

     

Shiraz is known as the capital of Persian Art, Culture and Literature.

Geography

Shiraz is located in the south of Iran and the northwest of Fars Province. It is built in a green plain at the foot of the Zagros Mountains 1500 metres (5200 ft) above sea level. Shiraz is 919 kilometres (571 mi) south of Tehran.[31] A seasonal river, Rudkhaneye Khoshk, flows through the northern part of the city and on into Maharloo Lake.

Climate

Shiraz has a moderate climate with regular seasons. Shiraz contains a considerable number of gardens. Due to population growth in the city, many of these gardens may be lost to give way to new developments. The rainfall in recent years, during which atmospheric conditions have changed perceptibly, has been comparatively sufficient, and has reached 23 inches in a year, but the average rainfall is between 14 and 18 inche.